|Scientific name||Homo sapiens|
|Height||1.5 to 1.9 meters (average) |
0.5 to 2.7 meters (extremes)
2.73 meters (tallest ever)
|Weight||50 to 90 kg|
|Skin Colors||Pinkish to dark brown (some humans have white skin due to genetic mutation)|
|Lifespan||40 to 80 Earth-years (average) |
122 Earth years (oldest ever)
|Language||Approximately 6,500 currently spoken languages|
|Subspecies/Races||Homo sapiens sapiens (extant)|
Homo sapiens idaltu (extinct)
|Behind the Scenes|
- "Homo sapiens; what an inventive, invincible species. It's only a few million years since they crawled up out of the mud and learned to walk. Puny, defenseless bipeds. They've survived flood, famine and plague. They've survived cosmic wars and holocausts. And now, here they are, out among the stars, waiting to begin a new life. Ready to out sit eternity. They're indomitable!"
- ―The Doctor (The Ark in Space)
Humans (Homo sapiens) are a species of bipedal sapient beings native to planet Earth. They are omnivorous and generally believed to have descended from arboreal ancestors.
Humans have an erect posture, with two legs, two arms and a head which comprises the brain and most of the sense organs. Extraterrestrial species showing this same body plan, or a very similar one, are collectively known as humanoids. Although some humanoid races look almost exactly like humans (probably due to convergent evolution), as is the case with Vulcans, they are often very different internally. Vulcans, for example, have green blood containing copper, while the Human blood is red and contains iron.
|Constituent||Weight||Percentage of atoms|
|Oxygen||38.8 kg||25.5 %|
|Carbon||10.9 kg||9.5 %|
|Hydrogen||6.0 kg||63.0 %|
|Nitrogen||1.9 kg||1.4 %|
|Other||2.4 kg||0.6 %|
Humans are carbon-based lifeforms, and have an internal skeleton containing calcium phosphate, which gives the bones strength and durability. More than 60% of the Human body is composed of liquid water. Their circulatory system is closed and they have a heart and two lungs (though they are able to survive with only one lung), located in the chest area.
Humans have two pairs of limbs, the lower pair adapted for bipedal walking (legs) and the upper for carrying (arms).
Human arms end in hands. Hand are intricate arrangements of five miniature limbs that can be used as grapples, tweezers, clusters of feelers, baskets or semaphore machines. (Aliens often mistake human hands for symbiotic lifeforms on first contact: hands appear to have four limbs and a head, like the main body of the human; the hands operate machinery and perform all the recognizably intelligent actions, and the hands attempt to communicate in some sort of interpretive dance.)
Humans balance vertically on their legs. Human knees bend backwards. Human feet evolved from a second pair of hands, the feet can bear the human's weight, but cannot perform any of the actions of the true hands. However, though, hence, humans have also developed sufficiently to perform tasks using their feet as a matter of choice and need in place of the hands where absent.
Despite having evolved as a predatory species, Humans are generally considered weak and not well adapted to hunt without the aid of tools. Their canine teeth, for example, are not sharp like those of their evolutionary relatives, the other Earth primates, and their fingers and toes have nails, rather than claws. They can, however throw objects with unusual strength and accuracy, and an athletic human is a tireless runner. A human following you with a rock is extremely dangerous.
Humanity's greatest strength is their endurance. Being pursuit predators by nature, humans have several adaptations for such a lifestyle such as sweat glands and being mostly bare of hair. Even when compared to other Terran pursuit predators like wolves, a human's endurance is massive. With this endurance comes hardiness. Injuries such as broken limbs or large lacerations are often death sentences for other species while humans oftentimes live several years after receiving similar injuries though, thanks to their hyperactive scar tissue, leaves nasty scars. In hybrids with other sapient species, this adaptability lessens or completely removes any inherited weaknesses.
Human technology is largely based on fire, textiles, ceramics, refined metals and woodwork. Wood is rigid plant matter. Humans cultivate useful plants and "tame" animals. Taming is the control of non-intelligent animals by befriending and selective breeding. Humans use simple biochemistry to repair and regulate their bodies. It is very common for humans to use floating vehicles. Humans' first priorities are weapons, the production of shelters, and the lighting of fires, to produce digestible food.
Humans extend their memories, communicate and perform mathematics by scratching and painting symbols onto objects. Advanced human civilizations begin with this practice. Humans' possessions and environments are often completely covered in these symbols. Humans record large bodies of knowledge in "books". Books are block-shaped objects made of hundreds of flaps: vast, hidden surface areas for symbols. However, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries humans began to store information on computers.
Advanced human technology includes: wheeled and flying vehicles; mining for metals and combustible minerals; organic chemistry (mostly the production of drugs, plastics and explosives); atomic fission; and a large variety of electromagnetic devices, including Von Neumann computers. Humans' use of biological machines does not extend beyond their taming technologies and experiments with microorganisms.
Humanity has had atomic weapons since 1945, but the majority of weapons used by humanity are chemical- and projectile-based with some electromagnetic alternatives, like the rail-gun.
Humanity entered the space age in 1957 with the launch of Sputnik, their first satellite. Since then humanity has launched a number of other satellites for many purposes, like military and communications; they also have a space station in orbit and have a number of space shuttles. Humanity has put a man on the moon, robots on mars and have a satellite that left the edge of the solar system in the 21st century, as well, becoming the first interstellar space craft built by man.
The 21st century brought a lot of things for man: the fastest type of engine so-far created, called the ion engine; cures for the major diseases that plagued the 20th century; the search for extraterrestrial life in our solar system (mainly observing Titan and Europa); and finally plans are currently being drawn up for the first human extraterrestrial base, for which planet identification technology has been created and artificial intelligence technology has begun to make leaping advancements. Meanwhile, humanity has also recently began to create minicomputers, referred to as smartphones. These are strong electronic multitools that are commonplace on Earth. On average, a phone can act as a flashlight, communication service, streaming service, music player, and much more.
Humanity has also managed to create a monetary system.
Human Governments Edit
As humans are relatively primitive, their homeward is still decided up into several different autonomous governments known as countries. Countries are commonly confused with nations, but they are not the same. Two countries on the Korean Peninsula, known as the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, are separate countries. However, Korea itself is one nation.
Countries are always headed by governments, and usually are usually headed by one single head of state. There are a few current exceptions, such as the City State of San Marino, which has multiple. The most common government found in history is the monarchy, but the most common one found today is the republic.
A country's government determines how it is handled and what it is like for people living in the country.
Human governments can go many ways, but the most common in history (and second most common status quo) is the monarchy. Monarchies are governments where one head of state leads the country. It is most common for the monarch to be hereditary. In an absolute monarchy, the monarch has complete power, whereas in a constitutional monarchy, a constitution limits the monarch's powers.
Types of monarchies:
- Crowned republic- A crowned republic is a country which is really a republic. However, it has monarchs which serve no purpose in the government. These monarchies are very rare, and exist most dominantly in Africa.
- Constitutional monarchy- The most common actual monarchy in the world is the constitutional monarchy. In this form of government, the monarch has limited power, but is still head of state. A constitution is put in place, however, making it so the monarch cannot override the limits.
- Parliamentarian - Like the Constitutional monarchy, it has a constitutuion, however, while the Constitutional let the monarch choose the prime minister, the one who will rule, while the monarch garanties the national sovereignty and serves more like a simbol, the prime minister its chosen by the parliament.
- Absolute monarchy- A monarchy where the monarch has complete and total rule over his country.
- Elective monarchy- A monarchy in which the monarch is elected. The monarch has no terms and rules for life. Usually, the monarch has to be of royal descent. For example, in a germanic country (which no longer exists) called the Holy Roman Empire was an elective monarchy. The Holy Roman Empire was made up of several vassal monarchies. Some of these were headed by a prince-elector. Prince-Electors were hereditary, and they would choose one of their fellow electors to be the Emperor. This made the imperial seat hereditary yet elective.
- Vassal state- A monarchy which is granted some independence, but is generally under the control of a more powerful state. It will be required to pay 'tribute' to that state when it is needed. Tribute can be soldiers, weapons,or materials. Republics can also be vassals.
- Viceroyalty- Primarily used by Spain, these monarchies are essentially colonies, except they are like miniature countries. The viceroy, however, is not independent at all, and is essentially only in command until his superior wants him to do something else.
- Commonwealth- This can also be a republic. Commonwealth countries are two separate countries with different laws and interests, but that are still headed by the same leader. An example of two commonwealth countries is the United Kingdom and Canada, which are different, independent countries that are still headed by the same person.
Types of monarchs and the monarchy they rule:
- King/Queen- Kingdom/Queendom
- Rajah- Rajahnate
- Sultan- Sultanate
- Khedive/Prince (not sovereign)/ Viceroy- Khedivate/Princely State/Viceroyalty
- Emperor- Empire
- Tsar- Tsardom
- Prince/Co-Prince- Principality/Princedom/Co-Principality/Co-Princedom
- Bishop- Bishophric
- Duke/Archduke/Grand Duke- Duchy/Dukedom/Archduchy/Grand Duchy
- Khan- Khanate
- Shogun- Shogunate
- Chief- Chiefdom
- Caliph- Caliphate
- Emir- Emirate
- Baron- Barony
- Count- County
- Prince-Elector/Elector- Electorate
- Burgrave- Burgraviate
Here is a list of monarchies that are currently existing today:
- United Kingdom and its commonwealth territories (Canada, New Zealand, and Australia are the most notable)
- Sultanate of Brunei
- Kingdom of Bhutan
- State of Kuwait
- State of Qatar
- Sultanate of Oman
- Kingdom of Morocco
- Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
- Kingdom of eSwatini (formerly known as Swaziland; very recently changed its name to prevent confusion with Switzerland)
- Kingdom of Lesotho
- United Arab Emirates
- Sultanate of Malaysia
- Kingdom of Norway
- Kingdom of Sweden
- Co-Principality of Andorra
- Principality of Monaco
- City State of Vatican City
- Empire of Japan
- Kingdom of Bahrain
- Kingdom of Spain
- Kingdom of Jordan
- Principality of Liechtenstein
- Kingdom of the Netherlands
- Kingdom of Belgium
- Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
- Kingdom of Cambodia
- Kingdom of Thailand
- Kingdom of Denmark
Republics are today's most common form of human government. Republics are usually far less aristocratic and are centered around freedom for the people. Most human countries which are republics were once monarchies which transitioned after a coup, civil war, or revolution. Others were once colonies which were proclaimed republics upon independence from their parent nations.
A republic is essentially a nation whose leader is not a monarch. In a republic, the country is considered a 'public matter,' and the country is not treated like the property of the rulers. In a republic, primary positions of power are not inherited, and no one is entitled to said power.
Instead of monarchs, most republics are lead by presidents.
Types of Republics:
- Constitutional republic- A republic which limits the powers of its president. A primary example of a constitutional republic is the United States.
A dictatorship is those strongmen thrive in authoritarian and totalitarian regimes.
Government Structures Edit
Democracies (WIP) Edit
A democracy is a country whose leaders are chosen by the people through an election, rather than by having those positions of power inherited.
Communism (WIP) Edit
A Communist country is a country which tries to keep money well spread and equal. Most communist countries are now gone, but a majority of them that have been formed in history were former parts of the Russian Empire. In Russia, money was kept in the hands of the nobility, and everyone else was in extreme poverty. After the Russian Revolution, multiple republics were formed in the ashes of Russia (They eventually unified into the USSR). To make money more equal, philosophers came up with the idea of communism. Communism was meant to work so no one had more money than anyone else, not even Russia's beloved Orthodox Church. Everyone would earn the same amount of money and no one would receive benefits. Eventually, the leaders started hogging the money for themselves, too, and it was a failure, being responsible by the deaths of millions. While communism supposed to be a perfect utopy, the attempts to make it a reality stopped at socialism, which is one of the many phases to transform a country to a capitalist to a communist regime. Today, very few communist nations exist on Earth.
Monarchies (WIP) Edit
A monarchy is a country whose leader remains in power for a time, and is then replaced by a chosen successor or their offspring.
Human Religions (WIP) Edit
The largest human religions Edit
Because humans have been divided amongst countries for an unusually long time, they have developed numerous different religions. Most of them have been nearly wiped out by colonialism. In Africa, for example, there was a wave of European colonialism just a few decades ago, and already only two percent of Africans follow their native religions.
Here's a list of the world's largest religions.
- Christianity- A monotheistic religion which believes in God, who is supposedly the creator of the universe. Christians mainly celebrate God's son, Jesus. Christianity states that someday Jesus will reincarnate again, and if you truly believe in God and Jesus, he can save you and help you live forever in heaven.
- Islam- A teaching that there is only one God, also called God, and that Muhammed is the messenger of God. In Islam faith, God says that the only reason he created man is to worship him. It also says that God sent Prophets to teach people how to worship him, the last of which is Muhammed. The Prophets were meant to teach one thing: That there is no God to worship but God, called Allah in Arabic.
- Atheism- The belief that there is no afterlife, no God, or both.
- Hinduism- Hinduism is polytheistic, and recognizes as many as 330 million Gods. Hindus worship Brahma, however. Brahma is apparently the supreme God, and it is said that he inhabits every piece of reality and existence in the universe. Because Brahman is everything, humanity is considered by Hindus to be divine.
- Buddhism- The belief that follows a Prince named Buddha. Buddha was shielded from all evil by his parents, and eventually he ran from the palace to see the world. Horrified by the poverty and pain felt outside of the castle, Buddha renounced his royal title and became a monk, and was the first person to become enlightened. Buddhism suggests that we are forever trapped by the Four Noble Truths, which essentially state that we endlessly crave for impermanent things. This cycle can be ended, however, after enlightenment is achieved. Enlightenment is the 'object of knowledge' of the Buddhist path
- Paganism- Any of various native religions practiced by various people around the world throughout history. It usually involves the worship of many gods and spirits who inhabit natural phenomena.
Human Exploration Edit
Several human civilizations have brought humanity far forward in exploration.
Earth is divided up onto seven continents and three subcontinents: Madagascar, Japan, Zealandia, Africa, North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. Each continent and subcontinent has a wide array of countries (countries are civilizations which are controlled by separate, autonomous governments. Several have come into and out of existence).
As humanity began on a peninsula known as the 'Horn of Africa', the colonisation of the rest of the world was a form of exploration, as humans superseded the dominant predators of the new regions and adapted using technology to unknown environments. The watercraft was a very important development, as it allowed cultures such as the Polynesians to travel far from their point of origin.
However, the cultures that predominated between the first cities and the renaissance did very little exploration. The Vikings and Chinese are important exceptions, and the Phoenicians circumnavigated Africa under the command of the Pharaohs. Trade existed between the Far East and Europe firstly through Persia and then through the Muslim Empire.
Starting from approximately the year 1500, the Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish, English and French nations began a rapid and ambitious program of exploration. In 1500, Spain and Portugal, two countries located on a part of Europe known as the 'Iberian Peninsula,' were the pioneers at the time. Meanwhile, the Dutch had a flourishing overseas trade company which brought immense wealth. In 1603, the King (A king is a regional human monarch. Kings are regional because they are monarchs originating from Europe. Other monarchs, such as Rajahs, originated from Asia) of Scotland became the King of England, and in 1707 this would unify the two nations, thus creating the Kingdom of Great Britain, which would be the dominant power in all of the world until the 20th century.
The Europeans came across new cultures and continents, fostering trade links and creating colonies. However, soon afterwards a time of aggressive colonization began, and the competing European nations began to try and subdue flourishing civilizations such as the Benin, Aztecs, Tarascans, Siberians, and many more. The countries taking part were always trying to get the edge over the others, and wars between them were common. It was also about this time that devices such as the telescope and chronometer were developed.
Importantly, North America was settled at this time. Soon after its colonization, the War of Independence occurred. The United States emerged as a powerful country apart from Europe.
For the next few hundred years, the relative power of the British, French and Americans increased at the expense of other nations. The slave trade began, and people were displaced from their native countries to work elsewhere, usually in plantation run by European powers. In the 20th century, Germany became a colonial power, raising the fourth largest empire in the world (at the time. Past civilizations grew much larger. The third largest then was France, the second was Britain, and the first was Russia. It is important to know that, in terms of size, Britain would soon surpass Russia).
However, in the 20th century many colonies were granted independence, and soon very little of any empire was held. The World Wars, catastrophic for Europe, enabled the United States to become more powerful in comparison, due to its powerful industry and military. Aircraft appeared late in the 19th century, and allowed precise mapping and rapid travel around the world. The Soviet Union also gained power.
In 1957, the USSR launched its first space probe, Sputnik 1. This caused the Space Race between the USA and the USSR, which no other country could keep up with.
Yuri Gagarin was the first man in space, in 1961.
In 1969, the USA landed two men on the Moon.
In 1977, the furthest man-made object in space as of 2015, the Voyager 1, was launched.
Humans in Popular CultureEdit
Human civilizations have been featured in various ways in an extraordinarily large number of works, including but certainly not limited to:
- Final Fantasy
- Dungeons & Dragons
- The Elder Scrolls
- Mass Effect
- Monster Hunter
- Star Wars
- Star Ocean
- And many others...
In science fiction and fantasy settings, Humans may be portrayed as anything from a planetary civilization to an interplanetary, interstellar or even intergalactic one.
Humans in science fiction may also be known as Earthlings, Terrans or Tellurians. The Real People from Joan D. Vinge's "The Crystal Ship" refer to Humans as the "Star People"; whereas the Traags from Fantastic Planet call them "Oms", and regard them as little more than pests. In the Sector General universe, every sapient species calls itself "human" in its native tongue, thus requiring the descriptor "Earth-Human", or using the physiological classification for humanoids in general: "DBDG".
Some works of fiction have portrayed Humans as descendants of some extraterrestrial species that once settled on Earth, e.g.: the Pak Protectors in Known Space or the Golgafrinchans in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy; or as the product of artificial experimentation on Earth's lifeforms, either intentional or unintentional, such as that which was conducted by the Silurians in Doctor Who, or by the Elder Things in H. P. Lovecraft's "Cthulhu Mythos". In the Space Odyssey series, Humans achieved sapience under the influence of an alien Monolith.
Additionally, the social and technological development of Humans may have been influenced or guided by alien interference, e.g.: the Vorlons from Babylon 5; a Salaxalan pilot from Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency; or the Silents from Doctor Who.
In the works of science fiction author Isaac Asimov (when they feature aliens at all), Humans are often portrayed as a unique species among aliens in some aspect or another. In "The Hostess", Humans are the only intelligent species to walk bipedally, and the only one to be omnivorous. They're also the only species which needs to sleep and has the ability to dream, and the only one with a biologically-finite lifespan. Humans are the only ape-derived species not to end up devastated by a nuclear war in "The Gentle Vultures"; the only species to which group psychology is applicable in "Homo Sol" and its sequels; and the only species in the galaxy which reproduces sexually in "What Is This Thing Called Love?".