The society of these aliens is one where individuals are grown in test tubes not knowing their parents and raised only by select members of society. Despite this leadership seems to be hereditary with the next heir unknown to the public until the time of succession arrives. Their society teaches that their kind are a superior master race who should not concern themselves with lesser beings. The sick and elderly are killed off for the sake of keeping the species strong. However a faction of their population has learned via reading of a book about a past that was friendlier and compassionate- with families and siblings. A past this faction seeks to return to. With the death of the heir and leader at the end of the film it's implied that a revolution will take place resulting in a return to how things use to be.
Name wise the species uses names like Derek, Thor, and Saul and have developed a language identical to English. Their number system is also identical to that used on Earth as too is their letters. However Derek has trouble determining what the words on a dog tag mean; which is easily explained in that some aspect of it is not relate-able to his society. Family names would be one such factor unfamiliar to him as his society has eliminated family names.
The Aliens possess 'Focused Disintigrators'- ray guns that reduce a target to bone. They consider bullets to be primitive. They utilize flying saucers to travel between planets and have 'radiovision'- where in sound and images are broadcasted wirelessly as a form of two way communication. This is comparable to our own Video Calling except it's based on radio waves.